Counselling London provide several different counselling modalities for patient treatment.What comes to mind when you think of the words counselling or counsellor? Do you picture a room where one person tells another their deepest secrets and problems hoping for magical advice that will whisk the trouble away? The fact is the word counselling is much more then that and actually encompasses several different counselling modalities or types. Understanding what they are can help you to choose the system which may work best for your individual needs.
There are two types of counselling, directive and non-directive. A directive counsellor is one who will tell you things that you can do and may request that you do “homework” assignments to help you each your goals, while a non-directive counsellor will allow you, the client, to decide what topics are discussed and where to go with the information with a nudge here and there. Both “types” work using some sort of modality, here is a short list of the different types of counselling modalities that you may come across and a short description of each.
The modality of behavioural therapy is built on the belief that any learned behaviour can be changed or unlearned without drawing attention to reasons or origin of the behaviour. Those who suffer from phobias, fears, addictions or obsessive compulsive behaviour often benefit from therapy modality.
Behavioral therapy, in general, is believed to have three separate and distinct points of origin, South Africa led by Wolpe’s group, the United States led by Skinner, and the U.K with both Rachman and Eysenk as lead. All three offer their own approach to looking at behaviour issues.
Eysenck’s group focused on behaviour issues as interplay between environment, behaviour and personality characteristics. Skinner’s group located in the U.S tended more towards an operant conditioning where the main focus created a useful approach to interventions and assessment focused toward contingency management like the token economy and behavioural activation.
One of Skinner’s group, a student by the name of Ogden Lindsey is said to have formed a movement called precision teaching. Precision teaching is a type of graphical chart known as the Standard Celeration Chart which monitors the progress of clients.
Skinner was interested in individualizing programs to improve learning for those without learning disabilities and spent time working with Fred S. Keller to develop programmed instruction toward that end. These programmed instructions offered up some clinical successes in aphasia rehabilitation. In fact Gerald Patterson used programmed instructions as a way to help create his parenting guide for kids with behavioural problems. Respondent condition appears slow, depending upon age, but operant conditioning remains relativity stable.
Although many practitioners of behavioural therapy remain solidly committed to the basic operant and respondent paradigm, the second portion of the twentieth century saw more therapists combining behavioural therapy and the cognitive therapy pioneered by Aaron Beck and Albert Ellis, to form cognitive behavioural therapy.
In some practises adding the component of cognitive therapy added to the effect such as the collected evidence which suggests cognitive interventions vould improve social phobia treatments, while in other sections the treatment was not enhanced, which brought about Third Generation Behaviour Therapies.
Third generation behaviour therapy makes use of the basic principals of operant and respondent psychologies but adds usable analysis and clinical formulation or case conceptualization of verbal behaviour which is more inline with the view of the behavioural therapist. Although some research papers suggest the effectiveness of these therapies for some cases of cognitive therapy, the overall question has yet to be answered.
What Are The Five Steps for Creating a Top Team?
There are plenty of great tools, techniques and activities so one can develop a winning team. However, do you know what is right for you? You may have noticed that lumps of money are usually spent in order to develop a winning team but are they really effective? Team building is not the same as building a house because it involves establishing a relationship. This relationship needs to be sustainable. Due to the economic downturn, there has been an evident competition among various companies. Teams should be always ready to adapt to the changes and ready to respond to the challenges that may come their way. When you use the steps outlined in this article, you will be able to establish team work and even your personal relationships at home with your friends, personal networks and of course, your family.
There are two main issues that you need to take into great consideration when you are developing a team. First you need to think of the team culture and second the manner they communicate both internally and externally.
Cultural Aspects Of A Team
A team’s cultural aspect is often made up of philosophy, mission and values of the organisation. Once each member of the team knows what they are supposed to do, the team will be able to move forward and reach individual and team goals.
For the team to be successful, it is important that the team communicates well and discuss what is working and what is not. There are various processes that make up a good communication. It is considered fundamental because it is the key to conducting activities.
The Steps To Creating A Winning Team
In order to understand individual perspective, it is important to have one on one sessions with staff. It is important for the team leader to know the factors that can motivate each individual. It is also important that the team understand their roles and expectations of the organisation.
- It is also important to conduct a team survey and this will evaluate what others may say about the team.
- Identifying the team’s vision, purpose, culture and values is also essential. This step must be done together with the team.
- Messages should also be cascaded effectively for clear communication to be developed effectively. The teams interaction must also be taken into great consideration and this includes reading body language, building rapport, developing listening skills and many others. It is also important to receive feedback from team members.
- There should also be an action plan so the team will have an idea of their areas for improvement. This way, the team leader will know what can make the team successful.
One should also note that these steps are not considered quick fixes as they only serve as guidelines to developing an effective and successful team. Like a relationship, team development really takes time to develop and using the right set of circumstances, one can have an effective and motivated team in the long run. When total commitment is seen in a team, the process may progress and may develop into something that all of the members of a team wants to achieve. This is why the team leader really plays an important role in the process of decision-making.
You can also work with a life coach for you to know what you have to do in order to develop a winning team. A coach can help you identify aspects that need to be improved and they will also help you work out on things and set long term goals.
What are the Six Career Dilemmas That Most People are Facing and How Career Counselling or Coaching Can Assist
At present, the world sees a job for life as a thing of the past it is no longer surprising for an individual to change jobs or career every once in a while. As a matter of fact, an average person move jobs up to 11 times and may even change their career 4 to 5 times in a lifetime. These do not include interdepartmental changes taking place within a workplace. This is why career counselling or coaching has become very important for a lot of people.
This is why it is no longer surprising for people to be at a crossroad faced with difficult choices in life especially when it already involves career change. There are various situations that may convince a person to change career and this is where coaching comes in:
Asking for a salary increase
You may already be contented with your present job but you seem to find it difficult to make ends meet. Due to the fact that our economy too a nose dive, it is definitely hard to manage your finances with a meager salary. Another sad fact is that there are only a few workers who are willing to ask the employer for a pay rise. There are still plenty of things that need to be taken into great consideration such as the performance of the company. When the company is no longer performing, it is safe to say that pay rise may be an elusive thing as well. It is quite possible to get information from your colleagues regarding the salary they are earning. This way you will have an idea of the next step you are going to take. This will also be a diciding factor for you whether or not you should get a pay rise.
With all of the information that you gather, it will be much easier for you to decide how you are going to create an achievable goal where you and your employer can benefit from. It should be as realistic as possible for you to get what you really are aiming for. There are employees that may feel embarrassed when they are into this kind of situation and coaching can help them muster all of the courage to ask for a pay rise. You will also be able to see a much cleaer picture of what really is happening before you even take the leap.
Working toward a promotion
The road toward aiming for a promotion is definitely tough and it is something that really takes practice. There are individuals who are not into having a healthy competition for the belief that they might not fit into the other colleagues big shoes in terms of aiming for a promotion. It is important to feel confident especially if you think that you deserve the promotion. Do not be taken aback by other people who are also trying to win the rat race. When you analyze the situation, it will be easier for you to find out how you can emerge victorious in your career battle.
Seeking a new job
In spite of the fact that the internet opens more employment possibilities, we still cannot deny the fact that it is still very elusive to pass the interview process. With the help of coaching, it will be pretty easier for you to get the job that is really suitable for you. It has a way of setting your fears aside so you will be able to have a greater chance to succeed. If you also dread the fact that you are going to leap to the unknown, coaching will help you put your best foot forward and have a greater chance of success.
Going to Job Interviews
Some individuals may think that going for a job interview is a breeze but it can really be difficult at times especially if you are not prepared for the questions being asked. Even if it is a job interview that you have long been waiting, there can be a huge chance of blowing your chance when you are not prepared enough to provide an honest answer. It is important that you are in total control of the situation durking job interview. This way, you will be able to make yourself prepared for the questions that the interviewer may throw your way. You can answer questions to the best of your ability once you are mentally and physically prepared. The interview process can be a two way street and you will be able to find out what will really work for you.
Starting an entirely new job
Does having a new job sound good to you? It certainly bis but being new to the company can also be tough especially if you do not know what really lies ahead. With the help of coaching, you will be able to step towards learning new things and to make your dreams come true.
These days, more and more people are joining the career change bandwagon not only out of choice but also out of necessity. NLP and coaching are effective in terms of helping individuals find their niche. If you have been thinking of re-training or setting up your own business, this can be a great opportunity for you to make some changes. It is important when changing career to make a clear decision so you will be able to make the right choices. This way you will be able to become the best that you can be.
There is a wide range of issues that coahcing and NLP can address and these are just a few of them. You will be able to make your career dreams come true when you know which path is really best for you to take.
Are you vacillating on changing your career? What can make you stay or go?
It can really be a daunting task to change career or move to another job due to several reasons. There are those who want to change their careers due to the fact that these jobs have high stress levels and they also have insufficient family time. It is also another reason for an employee to change career when they do not find a sens of fulfillment in their current jobs. There are many people who would often think that they are always finding themselves working in motorways and moving from one business obligation to another. In order to catch up, you may also find yourself taking you laptop to bed and feeling really exhausted at the end of the day.
What can really help?
There are many things that you can do to put things in better perspectives and one of which is to start thinking about your choices: you can either stay in your present job and look for ways to improve it or probably opt for something else.
- Think about the job you currently have and the factors that are driving you nuts. You also need to create a list and try to think of the things that you can influence or be in control of. You may also think of the things that can help you change yourself such as your boss. You also need to think of the right technique for you to effectively manage your time. For example, try to come up with a time management technique so you no longer have to take your laptop to bed just so you can meet dealines. You may also ask the company if they have other options such as working for reduced hours or working from home. This way you will be able to put things in a much clearer perspective.
- The other part of the list should include the things that drive you nuts but you have no influence of. If you feel as though you cannot beat the odds especially with the way the company treats its people, then this is something that you need to have a look at. It can be that you have no respect to the leaders of the organisation. There are two options for you to choose from and one of which is being able to change things an the other is to accept them as they are. If you cannot take a positive step then you need to move elsewhere. There are things that you really cannot change and these may really drag you down. These may be your friends, family or probably yourn colleagues.
- There are many things that are stopping us from moving on and one of them is being scared of losing what we really have. It is worth making another list for us to look for another job. There might be some factors that influence lour decision to stay in our job or to leave. This can be the location, collegues, benefits and salary. You need to create a tick box so you will have an idea of the things you need to give up for you to finally move on to another job. If you are going to shift to self-employment there are some things that have to taken into great consideration and you also need to find a way how you can incorporate the things you love into your current career. Going through sudden changes is not easy because it requires you to adjust to another environment that you have not really expected in the first place.
- You may also try to make a research of the job that may suit your interest while you are staying in your current job. If you think that your current job is really ideal for you, then it is about time to go for it. It can be a good practice to compare and contrast things for you to get a better view of things.
- Be brave enough to step out of your comfort zone especially if it is for the better because this can later on lead to career growth.
Preparing for a Job Interview: Is This Employer for You?
These days, the quest for searching for a job is tantamount to a dating scene. The decision is usually based on one’s attractiveness and the manner the employer can relate to the candidate. Another misconception that job seekers have when applying for a job is focusing on its material benefits when there should be more. Although it does matter that you look at the compensations you get from working, it is still important that you value other aspects of getting a job. How then can you make your job more rewarding? It is when you choose your employer keenly.
If you are looking for a prospective employer, make sure you get to know them. You can obtain some information regarding your prospective employer by means of checking “careers” or “About Us” section of the page. When you read this section, you will have an idea what it is like working in a company of your choice. You will also know how you should behave in a company. For instance, if they have a lax environment, there is no need to become more restraint than working in a company with a very rigid environment.
You should also know the age and level of education of the employees and this matters because it will give you a brief background of the organization’s diversity. If type of job you are going to apply for demands late night meetings, you will be able to know how you should adjust to the situation.
Try to assess the company if they are someone you can stick to and establish a stable career path with. For sure, you do not have any plans of staying in one position after 4 to 5 years so you need to know if the company you will be working with can help you reach your professional objectives. Once a company has deeper understanding of how you foresee yourself a few years after working in the same organization, you can be sure that you will be treading on the same road to success.
Are You Into Career Planning?
Do you think that it is a sound idea to plan your career ahead of time? Although you may disagree to this, it is much better to really look ahead so we will have something to expect in the future. It is always to envision what you will become 10 to 15 years from now. This way, you will be able to find out what needs to be done. You will also be able to find out what you are going to be after retirement. With a systematic structure, you will also be able to know what will lie ahead of you and this alone will keep you on track. In fact, you have the power to do this even at any given point in time. It can also be a signal for a good start.
It is in your power to change your career path and tread on the path that you have long been wanting for so long. Although the old norm will dictate you to stick with the job you have, today’s employment trend is entirely different because you have the power to make your own choice no matter what it is.
It is also important that you choose the kind of job that really interests you and can make use of your abilities. It is also essential that you have passion for what you are doing because this is the only way that you will be able to excel.
For you to have a happier life, you need to make an important decision that is life-changing. It should be something that can really make you satisfied with the career path you take. You will be able to have a sense of fulfillment once you know which path you are going to take. It is definitely true that once you ar able to find your passion, you will never feel as though you were working. This is true in the sense that everyday, you will be able to find your contentment. You will not feel as though you really were working. Everyday is like facing what keeps you going. When you want to have a sense of contentment at what you are doing, you need to find your niche. You need to find out what you really enjoy doing. This way, you will be able to realize the impact of self-discovery.
Sports Coaching in a Nutshell
Sports coaching refers to the process of providing guidance, training and motivation to the individual who is training for sports to prepare his mind and body for the event or for journeying through sports career.
There are plenty of reasons why individuals consider coaching:
- Joining a sport
- Improving performance in a game
- Step up from advanced to professional level
- Become a world-renowned athlete
How do you start a new sport
One way to meet new people is by means of starting a new sport because aside experiencing real-life social interaction, you will also be able to improve your physical and mental health.
If you want to gain better and clearer understanding of the basic sport rules, it is beneficial to hire a sports coach. For example, if you have a penchant for playing tennis but you have not held a racket before, a tennis coach can help you learn the basic of this sport. One thing that a coach can do is ensure that you are going to get a full grasp of the basics of this sport so you can progress to a much higher level.
If you have mastery of this game, you can excel at it a few years from now.
How do you improve your game
In terms of sports coaching, teaching alone is not enough. It is important that you gain full mastery of the techniques and rules so you can decide whether or not the game is really for you. It will be also be easy for you to identify if you are going to take the game seriously or not.
When you have innate ability for your chosen sport, it will be easier for you to enhance your skills and work further in improving your performance in each and every game. When you practice, it is easy for you to improve your performance. Ever heard of the proverbial ‘practice makes perfect’? This is indeed true because you constantly strive for improvement when you keep on practicing. However, some people are discouraged to continue when they are no longer seeing signs of progress. More often than not, it is easier to give up than to go on.
If you are looking for a reliable person to assess your performance, it is going to be beneficial to hire a sports coach. Once your mind is set to move on and perform better, your motivation will return and you can also give yourself a boost especially when you are about to reach the higher level of your performance.
Kicking it up a notch: from advance to a professional level
Being a professional sportsperson does not happen overnight. It takes practice, self-discipline and perseverance. A great amount of talent and dedication are also required for you to become an excellent player.
When people possess a great deal of potential, a sports coach is recommended to them so they can explore their ability and perform even better. These sports coaches are known for having sufficient background on the sport they are coaching. In fact, they are also professional sports people themselves. They exactly know what it really takes for you to excel at your chosen sport. The role of a sports coach is similar to an agent because they can encourage a person to turn a hobby into a paying career.
Coaching has a holistic approach that sports coaches are using. They do not just look at one part rather they look at the whole picture. For example, if you are an aspiring track runner and you want to improve your game, instead of merely focusing on the treadmill, the sports coach will suggest you to take the psychological approach. There might be some mental blocks that may be stopping you from performing well. Something might be happening in your personal life that is causing you to get distracted. There might be some factors that are ruining your focus and concentration.
The closer athletes to reaching professional level, the more involved the coaches are and together with the sports people, they are constantly working hard to achieve goals. For goals to be achieved coach and athlete must be:
- Established through mutual respect and trust
How to pass yourself off as a world-class athlete
World class athletes need to dedicate their whole life to gain respect and recognition from people all across the globe. They do not just render eight hours to practice as most workers often do. Most of the time, they need to spend grueling hours to master the sports and excel at it. Without discipline and hard work, you cannot expect athletes to taste sweet success. It is just too impossible.
There strict rules that athletes need to live by because these are set by sports coaches for them to develop self discipline. You will start with changing your diet so you can stay fit and be able to perform physical training on a regular basis. It is also important to have self-discipline and sense of commitment because you will need to spend several hours and several days to hone your skills. You will not succeed in your sports career when you fail to do all these. There are no shortcuts to being a professional athlete because you always need to work hard for you to get this level.
World class athletes will be able to handle the emotional side of sports with the help of sports coaches. They often use sports psychology theory to help them in terms of:
1. Handle failure
What the purpose of pursuing your dreams when you are not going to win in the first place? It can be frustrating when you have spent countless hours and committed yourself to grueling training sessions only to find out that there are so many athletes out there who perform better than you do. You have already sacrificed, spent years to hone your skills and hoped to emerge victorious and when the sporting event came, you did not win at all.
Most athletes falter when they fail. It is reason enough for them to quit their career. However, if you are going to look at the bigger picture, failure is one way for you to learn and improve your skills. It is somehow the beginning of a new journey.
2. Dealing with success
It is a good thing to succeed after years of hard work but why is that some people still need help to cope with it?
Fame and wealth are often the result of being in the top level of sports. Footballers, live lavish and hedonistic lifestyle because they are paid more. However, sports coaches remind athletes to remain grounded and stay focused on their goals. More often than not, athletes get distracted with recognition they get from fans and sports coaches have to remind them not to lose their focus. For the lucky few in top level sport, success often results in fame and wealth – think of footballers and their incredibly lavish, hedonistic lifestyles. Sports coaches need to be on hand to rein in any egos, keep athletes grounded and ensure they remain focused on playing the sport without getting distracted by the public recognition that often comes with it.
3. Injury recovery
When an athlete is injured they are not only affected physically but psychologically as well. It is pretty normal to be dejected when you are injured especially when you use your body for your livelihood. It feels as though your world has suddenly crumbled down upon discovering that they cannot perform well anymore due to the injury. The loss can lead to depression, frustration and boredom. Inured athletes need to have support from sports coaches because this is the time when their well being is also affected. Instead of organizing sports events, coaches can schedule a therapy session, so athletes can slowly pick themselves up and go back to where they used to be. The best course of treatment can also be offered by coaches to injured athletes to speed up their recovery.
4. Improve performance
One way that athletes can improve their performance is through visualization techniques and self-talk exercises. It is the sports coaches that share these techniques with the athletes because they are known for improving athletes’ performance and their psychological perspective. With these techniques, athletes can reach their goals in life.
Sports coaching intended for children
If you have observed that your child is interested in participating in some type of sport, hiring a sports coach can help your children maximize you’re their full potential. A sports coach can help them in terms of making their progress reach the higher level. If you are interested in getting your child a sports coach, here are some information you need to know:
It is important that you hire a sports coach capable of safeguarding your children. They need to be trustworthy, competent and professional. A qualified sports coach need to be CRB checked as well.
Being able to understand development stages
It is expected from children to grow constantly. As they go through these changes their bodies also undergo biochemical changes as well and this has a huge effect on their performances. Coaches need to be aware of the stages that can help children support and match their development.
Ability to promote positive development
When you want your children to improve their performance, sports coaching will use a holistic approach. Sports are ideal for children because it provides them special skills that they can use as they journey through adulthood. These skills can also be applied to their everyday life and these include:
- Sense of sportsmanship
- Focus and discipline
- Team playing and leadership
- Good communication skills
Cognitive Analytical Therapy (CAT)
Cognitive analysis therapy or CAT explores a client’s thinking and language as well as links between cultural, historical and social ideals of how we operate. This type of therapy helps the client to learn and develop new skills with which to change undesirable patterns of behaviour including negative thought patterns and actions. The therapy modality comparatively short, lasting on average only around 16 weeks and is directive and strictly structured with the number of sessions agreed upon at the outset of the program.
During the first part known as the Reformulation phrase the analysit collects relevant information such as current issues and past life experiences to write a reformulation letter to the patient. The letter summarizes the therapist’s understanding of the problem with particular emphasis given to comprehending the link between childhood patterns of behaviour the way they impact o adult life. The document is then agreed between therapist and client and is then used to form the base for the rest of the sessions.
Once this summery letter has been agreed a client may then be requested to complete a series of rating sheets or diaries to record the occurrences of issues and their context. This period is known as the Recognition phase and during it the patient and the analyst will then work to create a diagrammatic formula which illustrates any unhelpful habits that remain problematic for the client. The purpose of this section is to help the client to see how and when problems happen.
During the 2nd part of the therapy the client and therapist move toward the Revision phase where “exits” are identified and practised from the diagram which was established during the earlier phase. For example; a troublesome procedure involving a client who may choose to overdose due to anger may include an “exit” strategy that involves expressing that anger in a way that is not self-harming behaviour.
At the end of the program both the client and the therapist write “goodbye” documents which summarize what they feel has been accomplished in the program and what still needs to be done which they exchange. Once the agreed upon amount of weekly sessions is complete a follow up session or sessions may occur to keep an eye on and support the client with any changes that have been managed Typically a 16 week course of therapy is followed by a single meeting approximately one month following the last session with a final session around three months later.
Cognitive Behavioral Therapy (CBT)
CBT or cognitive behavioural therapy seeks to change a person’s destructive emotions that stem from an incorrect view of past events. By helping a client to explore their thoughts beliefs, and behaviours CBT can help them to learn new ways of reacting and behaving. This type of therapy is often used with both individuals and groups and can include a number of therapeutic systems and approaches including well known systems such as cognitive therapy, rational emotive behavioural therapy and multimodal therapy. One difficulty which has persisted through out the development of CBT is defining the range of what make up cognitive–behavioural therapy.
Although the specific therapeutic method may vary somewhat within the various methods of cognitive behavioural therapy sessions ,depending on the specific type of difficulty or issues they will commonly include writing a journal of any significant events which will include associated thoughts, behaviours and feelings that question and test assumptions, cognitions, evaluations and beliefs that may be unhelpful or unrealistic. The therapist will then help the client to gradually confront activities which have been shunned and to try out new methods of acting and reacting. Mindfulness, relaxation and disruption methods are often used.
Cognitive behavioural therapy is often used in conjunction with some type of mood stabilizing medication to treat any conditions such as bipolar disorder. The application of cognitive behavioural therapy is recognized by the NICE guidelines within the British NHS as a way, along with medication and family therapy of treating schizophrenia.
Generally going through a course of CBT is not a walk in the park for clients, a typical course is 12 sixteen hour long sessions and even once a client begins to distinguish where and when their thoughts go awry it can continue to take a lot of time and attempt to a replace non-working cognitive-affective-behavioural process or habit with a more realistic and adaptive one.
CBT is very problem structured and focused towards the patient. This type of therapy requires that both patient and therapist are open and honest with each other so that the therapist can help develop strategies that allow the client to manage problems that can guide him or her to a better life.
Family therapy investigates the relationships within a family group by focusing on the family as a whole, instead of dealing with a individual person from within the family. The focus of this therapy is on how the family interacts together with the therapist’s aim to connect the entire family system in finding helpful solutions for any problems. Although the amount of session depends entirely on the family and its problems the average is usually between 5 and 20 sessions.
A family therapist will often meet with a couple of members of a family concurrently which has the benefit of being able to see the different ways in which family members see shared relations as well as interaction patterns which may become obvious to the analyst and the family during sessions. These patterns generally mirror habitual contact patterns seen at home even with the therapist incorporated into the family group.
Family therapy interventions generally focus more on association patterns then analysing impulses of the unconscious or early childhood traumas of individuals the way a Freudian therapist would, although some teachings for family therapy such as psychodynamic and intergenerational consider such historic and individual factors and might use tools such as a genogram to help clarify the patterns of relationships across the generations.
The most individual feature of a family therapy is the analytical framework and perception instead of the number of people who are present in any given therapy session. In other words family analysts are relational therapists, so they are usually much more involved in what occurs between people rather then what may be occurring within an individual, although some tend are as involved in individuals within the system those human beings and their interactions constitute, especially those who identify as psychodynamic, object relations, intergenerational, EFT, or experiential family therapists. Depending on current conflicts and the advancement of the therapy thus far, a therapist may choose to focus on examining a previous conflict, whereby reviewing the past event and proposing an alternative way in which the family could have dealt with each other during it instead or the therapist may instead proceed directly to addressing the source or sources of tension in a more abstract way by bringing attention to patterns of behaviour which the family may not have noticed.
The focus of family therapists is more toward the maintenance or solving of issues instead of attempting to recognize a particular cause. Although some family may see the cause-effect analysis as an attempt to focus blame to one of more human beings with the result that for these families to concentrate on the reason is of little or no value.
Neuro-linguistic programming (NLP)
The theory behind neuro-linguistic programming is divided into three levels:
Neuro: the establishment of our individual mental “map” of our environment.
Linguistic: The way in which we assign personal meaning to information
Programming: the way in which be behave or respond to our personal meaning of the information we receive from our environment
This type of therapy is most often used as a way to instigate changes to enhance our development, personal growth, and performance.
One a bond of trust has been established the therapist will gather information about the client’s present state and help the client to define the desired goal or state for the interplay often by using the meta model questions. The counsellor will then pay particular care to both verbal and non-verbal hints as the patient answers questions which define the current state and the desired state as well as any resources which may be used between them.
The client will then be encouraged to consider all of the consequences that the wanted outcome may have over his or her life, both professional and personal taking into strict account any positive goal toward any problems which may arise.
The client is then assisted in gaining the wanted outcome via the use of any tools or techniques designed to change the internal responses and representations to motivations in the environment. Other techniques and tools which may be used include indirect suggestion from the Milton model, reframing, and sub modalities.
Finally, the client is helped to “future pace” the changes by learning to mentally enact and incorporate the changes into the patient’s life. For instance; a client may be requested to project themselves into the future to see, feel and hear what it is like to have achieved the desired outcome in their own mind.
Psychoanalysis is a form of therapy that uses an understanding of human behaviour to explore the mind. With this type of therapy negative unconscious behaviours can be taken out into the open with the goal of changing them into something positive or at least removing any power they may hold over the client. Every aspect of your behaviour may be scrutinized including your relationship with your therapist as it can emphasise your pattern of behaviour within any relationships with others.
Psychoanalysis at its most basic is the understanding of the client’s unconscious conflicts which may be causing a problem with current functioning. Often these conflicts will cause a painful symptom such as a phobia, depression, anxiety, and compulsive behaviours.
According to Strachey in 1936 discovering the client’s distorted observations about the therapist can lead to an understanding of what may have been forgotten. In other words unconscious hostile emotions toward the therapist could prove to be symbolic negative behaviours toward what is known as the “frame” of the therapy. According to Robert Langs the frame of the treatment includes the necessity of speaking, fees and the times of the sessions. In other words If the client makes errors, forgot or exhibits other oddities over times, costs and talking the therapist can often find diverse unconscious “resistance” toward the stream of thoughts or free association.
Reclining on a sofa with the therapist hidden from view seems to allow the client to remember more, experience more resistance and transference and reorganize thoughts after an insight occurs from the translative work of the therapist.
When delving into a client’s fantasy life it is understood through the examination of dreams, including masturbation fantasies. (cf. Marcus, I. and Francis, J. (1975), Masturbation from Infancy to Senescence) Generally an therapist is iengrossed in how the client avoids or responds to these kinds of fantasies (cf. Paul Gray (1994), The Ego and the Analysis of Defence)
Any recollections of early life may be imprecise, Freud called these distortions “screen memories” and very early memories from before the age of two tend to be inaccessible.
Psychodynamic psychotherapy examines the unconscious mind as well as past occurrences and studies the influences of both on current responses and behaviours. With this type of therapy you will be supported to speak out about your childhood relationships with both your parents and other important people and it is encouraged for you to transfer or project deep feelings about yourself, your parents or any significant others onto the analyst.
Psychodynamic psychotherapy is a type of depth therapy where the main focus is to reveal things within the client’s unconscious psyche with the goal of alleviating any psychic tensions. Although it is comparable to psychoanalysis in this way it relies much heavier on the interpersonal relationship between client and therapist more then any other type of in depth therapy.
The approach for this type of therapy tends to be a bit more eclectic then others and takes form from a number of places instead of relying on a particular modality. It has been used in conjunction with individual psychotherapy, group psychotherapy, family therapy, and to comprehend and work with organizational and institutional contexts.
Most of the approaches to psychodynamic psychotherapy are cantered around the assumption that there is a maladaptive functioning leftover from childhood and this unconscious conflict is causing a dissonance in current day to day life. The role of the psychodynamic therapist is to uncover and help to resolve these unconscious problems by first intervening to alleviate the discomfort caused by them, then bringing them forward for the patient to recognize their existence and finally by helping the patient to develop tactics for change.
Some major procedures used by therapists in the psychodynamic psychotherapy modality includes distinguishing resistance and transference, free association, working through painful recollections and stressful issues, catharsis, and creating a strong therapeutic alliance.
The aim of relationship counselling is to enable people to recognize and manage negative patterns and differences within their relations. With the help of your therapist you will study your emotions and how you communicate so that you can find new ways to adapt for a positive future.
Before any kind of relations between people can be comprehended it is important to understand and recognize that each person has their own unique perceptions, personality, values and history, including the therapist.In fact, each individual within a relationship will adhere to a potentially different and unexamined value system, societal and institutional variables all of which can and do shape a person’s behaviour and nature and are considered during the process of therapy.
One principal of relationship counselling is that it is fundamentally beneficial that all participants interact with each other as well as with society with best possible amounts of conflict. To this end a couple’s conflict resolution skills predicts the instance of divorce.
All relationships, even the most balanced and best matched will go through periods of conflict known as negative interaction cycles which will result in self-reinforcing negative patterns due to various reasons including insecure attachment, ego, arrogance, jealousy, anger, poor, greed, understanding/communicationm or problem solving, third parties, ill health and so on.
Often changes in situation such as physical health, finances and the pressures of other family members can have a important effect on a couple and influence responses, the conduct and actions of those involved with the relationship.
Usually it is the interaction of two or more factors which cause the trouble and generally both parties involved exhibit such traits. This is because the influences within a relationship are reciprocal and it takes both to create and deal with problems.
Solution-Focused Brief Therapy
Solution-focused brief therapy is a type of therapy which centres on a specific problem and works to promote a positive change instead of focusing on the problem at hand or any past problems. Within this type of therapy you are expected to concentrate on the your positive attributes such as your resources and strengths to set goals and gain the changes that you wish to make.
Focused on social constructionist philosophy Solution focused brief therapy (SFBT),is a type of talking therapy which is often referenced as simply as ‘brief therapy ‘or ‘solution focused therapy’ This type of therapy points the focus toward what the client wants through treatment instead of on whatever problem or issue brought them to seek help. It does not utilize or draw attention to the past but rather today and in the future.
The way this type of therapy works is the analyst will ask the client to first envision their goal or wanted future then both will begin making the necessary changes both large and small which can make this envisioned future a reality for the client. To this end the therapist will ask questions about the client’s strengths and resources, story, and any exceptions to the issue.
Solution focused analysts tend to think that change is a constant SFB therapist works with their clients by helping them to identify those things which they want to change about their lives while also helping them to hold on to and encourage the things which are currently occurring that they want to keep. To this end the counsellor will help the client to build a solid vision of a wanted future in their mind that is convincing and possible and helps the patient to recognize those times within their current life when this “future” is close to examine what is dissimilar about those occasions so that the client can learn to identify and emulate the behaviour which brought about the successes.
Solution based therapy can be looked at as working predominantly or exclusively on two things, helping clients to discover a preferred future and discovering where, when, how and with whom parts of that wanted future are currently happening.
While this modality is often achieved using a social constructionist outlook it is realistic and can be realized without any specific theoretical framework beyond an intention toward these two things.
Person Centered Counselling
Person or client centred counselling is established on the idea that the therapist provides three essential features that are therapeutic in and of themselves.
Empathy: the skill to picture oneself in another person’s position
Unconditional positive regard: friendly, warm and positive emotions regardless of the other person’s behaviour
Congruence: openness and honesty
The counsellor works to develop a relationship with the patient and uses this relationship to help the client heal and change.
Formally begun by Carl Roberts, person centred therapy is now judged to be the basic work in the humanistic school of psychotherapies. Also known as Rogerian psychotherapy it is seen as one of the major scholastic groups along side psychodynamic, psychoanalytic and Existential therapy, pioneered by Sigmund Freud and Rollo May respectively.
According to Rogers individual experience is the basis for both therapeutic effect and for living. He was able to identify six separate circumstances which are necessary before a client can affect personality differences in a relationship during therapy. These six aspects are a vulnerability toward stress on the part of the patient, genuineness on the part of the therapist in that the therapist is really herself or himself with aspects of self disclosure, the clients awareness of the therapist’s genuineness, unconditional good regard on the part of the therapist for the patient, and an truthful empathy, all of which is in sharp contrast to the detached position of other therapies, especially the more severe behavioural therapies.
Other hallmarks of Roger’s Person centred therapy include, naturalistic faith in your own beliefs and the accuracy of feelings, living in the present rather than the past or future, contributing to other peoples’ lives, and a accountable recognition of your freedom, with a view toward involving yourself fully in our world
Psychosynthesis is an modality of psychology created by Roberto Assagioli M.D which at its most basic is simply a name for the process of personal growth. This process is the natural tendency or evolutionary drive in all of us to harmonize our various aspects at a higher level of organization which then becomes conscious making it possible for us to cooperate with and facilitate the process by broader use of our human abilities, such as will, imagination, and intuition. He included even our spiritual side, our higher aspirations, and our centre, which he called the Self.
Dr. Assagioli compared psychosynthesis to the most prevalent schools of thought of the day including Sigmund Fraud’s existential psychology where one contrasting belief is that psychosynthesis does not consider loneliness to be either essential or ultimate.
According to Assagioli “the direct experience of the self, of pure self-awareness… – is true. Other central ideals to his theory include, “Spiritual goals of “Self-Realization”, and the “interindividual psychosynthesis” – of ‘social integration…the harmonious integration of the individual into ever larger groups up to the “one humanity”
The modality of Psychosynthesis was never supposed to be an exclusive method or an school of thought by the 1960s many publications, centres and conferences around Italy and the United States offered it as a central theme.
The main way that Psychosynthesis broke off from the empirical base of psychology is that it discovered a person as both a soul and a personality which was considered to be spiritual but Assagioli continuously maintained it was scientific.
Although Assagiolicreated therapeutic methodologies that were beyond those to be found in other psychoanalysis modalities of the day with the unconscious playing an important role he was cautious to preserve a balance with the “rational” conscious therapeutic work.
The word psychosynthesis was not coined by Assagioli, in fact it was used by Bezzoli and even Freud who used it to define the aim for the client in psychoanalysis, : “As we analyse…the great unity which we call his ego fits into itself all the instinctual impulses which before had been split off and held apart from it. The psycho-synthesis is thus achieved in analytic treatment without our intervention, automatically and inevitably’
Although some of the main points of psychosynthesis are different from other modalities of the time, Assagioli did agree with Freud that repairing childhood traumas and the development of a healthy ego were needed goals, but he held on the point that growth could not be limited to only these goals. Assagioli, who was a student of both Eastern and Western spiritual philosophical traditions attempted to address human growth as it progressed beyond the well working ego, he wanted to encourage the growth of human potential that Abraham Maslow termed to be self actualization. He also wished to support the spiritual aspects of the human experience as well.
In short, Assagioli wanted to develop a way that a patient could consider both the mind and its personal growth which includes personality incorporation and self actualization and the spirit or transpersonal growth which includes spiritual insight, unitive states of consciousness and inspired creativity. Psychosynthesis also identifies the route of self realization such as the contact and response of the deepest directions or callings in life.
The Transactional analysis modality, which is also known as TA is considered to be an integral approach to psychology and psychotherapy due to elements within its framework of psychoanalytic, humanist and cognitive approaches.
Developed during the 1950s by Canadian-born US psychiatrist, Eric Berne transactional analysis counselling stresses a person’s personal responsibility toward their own feelings, behaviour and thoughts and believes that people change if they want to replace their normal or customary behaviour with different ones.
When entering into a transactional analysis session the therapist will offer:
Permission: for you to give out a new message about yourself and the world around you
Protection: because when making changes some behaviours and thoughts may seem risky
Potency: the power to actually deliver on is promised
Planning: planning goals is a part of the modality
The main focus of this modality is to uncover a person’s life script or plan that he or she was given as a child. The counselling will teach the client how to discover which of the following operations that he or she is working from at all times.
The Child: replaying actions and responses from childhood
The Parent: actions and reactions copied from parental figures
The Adult: appropriate to the current situation
According to its founder’s wishes, TA is not only post-Freudian but extra-Freudian. In other words although it has its basis in psychoanalysis it was specifically designed to be a unorthodox branch of the modality that places importance on transactional instead of psycho-analysis.
Because of its focus on the transactional, TA transferred notice from the inner psychological dynamics to those contained within people’s interactions. In other words rather then feel that raising the awareness of ideas held unconsciously was the best route, TA concentrates more on the way people interact with each other. Changing these interactions is the path that TA transverses to fixing emotional troubles
Berne also believed in making a promise toward “curing” his clients instead of simply attempting to understand them. To do so he introduced the most important aspect, the contract, a specific agreement between patient and analyst to pursue the specific changes a client wants.
By revising Freud’s concept that the human psyche is composed solely of the id, ego and super ego Berne suggested the addition of three additional ego states, the adult, the child and the parent which are shaped during childhood experiences and combine within Freud’s ego but not the id or super ego.
Accordingly unhappy childhood experiences could lead to these becoming pathologically fixated within the Child Parent ego states and bring discomfort to a client and those around him or her in a variety of ways including mental illnesses.
Berne took into consideration how people act with each other as well as how the different ego states influence each interaction. Counterproductive or unproductive interactions were believed to be signs signalling ego state issues. By studying these interactions according to an individual’s developmental history it would allow that individual to “get better.” Berne believed that each of us has something causing a problem within our ego states and that bad behaviours could be addressed by only treating the problematic person.
Berne was able to identify a typology of counterproductive social behaviours which he identified as “games.”
Berne wrote two popular books which showed his theories, : Games People Play (1964) and What Do You Say After You Say Hello? (1975). Berne’s long time friend Thomas Anthony Harris wrote I’m OK, You’re OK (1969), which is the most popular book about TA.
Existential counselling is the modality that helps people to illuminate, consider and understand life so that they can live to the best of their ability by encouraging them to pay close attention to any basic beliefs that they make about themselves and life so that they ma come to terms with life the way that it is helping them to understand their existence.
This type of counselling focuses on encouraging the client to take control of their own life and not focus on what they may be doing wrong while concurrently it takes note of limitations so that choices can be made based on the options which are available.
Gestalt counselling is a directive type of therapy which focuses on gestalten which is the patterns of thought, activity and feeling. This modality works by pushing the client into an active awareness of their present situation and incorporates communication that goes beyond the spoken.
One important aspect of gestalt counselling is acting out of or dramatisation of any conflicts within a client’s life. This could include the use of props such as several chairs so that the client may physically act out different positions to show various aspects of themselves.
Existential Counselling is a philosophical modality which addresses each aspect of a person’s life and places that person solidly within the predictable though challenging aspects of the human experience
According to existential counselling theory human living takes place within four separate dimensions, psychological and spiritual, physical, social and it shows that each of these aspects operate under which predictable paradoxes, dilemmas and tensions are played out. Accordingly people can learn to cope with these stresses and conflicts much more successfully by confronting the negatives as well as the positives including theproblems of life and death, strength and weakness, love and hate and absurdity and meaning.